Five Generations of Computer

04 Jan

Each generation of computer is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting in increasingly smaller, cheaper, more powerful and more efficient and reliable devices.

The history of computer development is often referred to in reference to the different generations of computing devices. Each generation of computer is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting in increasingly smaller, cheaper, more powerful and more efficient and reliable devices. Read about each generation and the developments that led to the current devices that we use today.

First Generation (1940-1956) Vacuum Tubes

The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions.

First generation computers relied on machine language, the lowest-level programming language understood by computers, to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts.

The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices. The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client, the U.S. Census Bureau in 1951.

Second Generation (1956-1963) Transistors

Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 1950s. The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors. Though the transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output.

Second-generation computers moved from cryptic binary machine language to symbolic, or assembly, languages, which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words. High-level programming languages were also being developed at this time, such as early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN. These were also the first computers that stored their instructions in their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology.

The first computers of this generation were developed for the atomic energy industry.

Third Generation (1964-1971) Integrated Circuits

The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers.

Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.

Fourth Generation (1971-Present) Microprocessors

The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer—from the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls—on a single chip.

In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh. Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors.

As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet. Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices.

Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond) Artificial Intelligence

Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality. Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come. The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization.

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. AI textbooks define the field as “the study and design of intelligent agents” where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1956, defines it as “the science and engineering of making intelligent machines.”

The field was founded on the claim that a central property of humans, intelligence—the sapience of Homo sapiens—can be so precisely described that it can be simulated by a machine. This raises philosophical issues about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings, issues which have been addressed by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity. Artificial intelligence has been the subject of optimism, but has also suffered setbacks and, today, has become an essential part of the technology industry, providing the heavy lifting for many of the most difficult problems in computer science.

AI research is highly technical and specialized, deeply divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other. Subfields have grown up around particular institutions, the work of individual researchers, the solution of specific problems, longstanding differences of opinion about how AI should be done and the application of widely differing tools. The central problems of AI include such traits as reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, communication, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects. General intelligence (or “strong AI”) is still among the field’s long term goals.

Read other post about Computer History:

Inventors of the Modern Computer (Konrad Zuse)

Inventors of the Modern Computer (John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry)

Inventors of the Modern Computer (Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper)

The History of the ENIAC Computer

The History of the UNIVAC Computer

History of Laptop Computers


Posted by on January 4, 2011 in Technology


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61 responses to “Five Generations of Computer

  1. Emily

    January 4, 2011 at 20:16:48

    I posted about this very subject myself recently, and it was great to see your view on it fahmirahman.

    • fahmirahman

      January 10, 2011 at 13:19:22

      thx Emily, hope this post useful for you.. 🙂


      June 6, 2012 at 16:07:29

      Excellent Post Buddy!!!!! It Helped A Lot

  2. efosa frank

    April 12, 2011 at 01:56:50

    please the computer made in all the generation and thier authors

    • fahmirahman

      April 19, 2011 at 17:50:27

      read below the post, hope you like it 🙂

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    April 28, 2011 at 14:02:35

    Welcome to a Facebook Page about mine,I’ve learned a lot from your blog here,Keep on going,my friend,I will keep an eye on it,One more thing,thanks for your post!.

    • fahmirahman

      April 28, 2011 at 14:06:30

      thx a lot bro.. hope it’s useful for you 🙂

  4. Erieze John A Lagera

    June 29, 2011 at 20:09:40

    This post is very useful, most especially for the newbies who want to know about the history of computer. Thank you sir fahmirahman, your post helps a lot. The infos are complete and precise.

    • fahmirahman

      June 30, 2011 at 13:17:58

      U’re welcome bro.. hope it’s useful for you.. many thx for the feedback.. 🙂

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    October 30, 2011 at 17:01:13

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    November 4, 2011 at 01:58:53

    I want to know those about computer

  9. Iqra Chaudhary

    November 11, 2011 at 22:57:28

    I want to know computers name which is used in third, fourth nad fifth generations of computer history and detail of each computer


      December 11, 2015 at 23:08:32


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    November 28, 2011 at 16:29:54

    very informative…

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    December 4, 2011 at 12:09:14

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    December 7, 2011 at 03:21:33

    in my opinion first genaration computer(1945-1955) is it right or not . I have studied from a book

  14. Nishant kumar

    December 7, 2011 at 03:22:35

    in my opinion first genaration computer(1945-1955) is it right or not . I have studied from a book. Pls sir tell me

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    The computer or special and evey year we or nigh to the future

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